Egg Week


USDA Weekly Egg Price and Inventory Report, September 15th 2021.

  • Shell inventory was up by 5.0 percent, following a rise of 2.7 percent for the previous week reflecting increasing oversupply relative to demand, consistent with addition of 0.3 million hens to the producing flock this week and 3.3 million over three weeks. Increased consumer activity prior to the Labor Day Weekend and more intense buying before Hurricane Ida moved stock from shelves but predictably prices are now falling. Midwest prices for generics are still comfortably above breakeven taking into account the combined costs of nest-run, grading, packaging and delivery. Chains spread their purchases and preempted anticipated price rises before the Labor Day weekend following a trend. It is possible that with a large National flock this strategy will suppress traditional pre-Christmas increases. Industry observers and participants expect buyers to adjust purchases only in response to retail demand and will hold down inventories in their DCs and stores. Since the beginning of 2021 generic eggs have been consistently priced, with a few exceptions, at levels to maximize margins. This strategy has depressed the volume of sales to the disadvantage of the industry. Market data suggests that chains have selected shelf prices for generic white eggs in response to holiday demand and are not featuring generic Large or Extra large.


  • Currently inventory comprises close to five days of production. Price movement over the past six months defies conventional supply to demand relationships and indicates extraneous factors affecting price. Wholesale Midwest prices for Extra- large and Large were down this past week after sequential rises and then stability extending over the past six weeks. This suggests that prices have plateaued and will decline extending through September. The commercial shell-egg price discovery system is obviously used by buyers to negotiate lower prices, serving as a self-fulfilling prophecy and a de facto instrument of potential indirect, but not necessarily intentional, collusion. The current relationship between producers and chain buyers based on a single price discovery system constitutes an impediment to a free market. The benchmark price amplifies both downward and upward swings and functions to the detriment of the industry. A CME quotation based on Midwest Large, responding to demand relative to supply would be more equitable.


  • The U.S. flock in production was up 0.1 percent (0.3 million hens) from the week of September 8th to 315.9 million despite seasonal depletions, with about 3.0 million molted hens having resumed production during the past month. The Industry previously demonstrated beneficial restraint in flock placement with continued depletions and non-restocking of some complexes or houses. The trend going forward is for a larger flock but per dozen margins will continue to decline for commodity eggs unless matched with increased demand despite prevailing seasonal wholesale price over the past four weeks.


  • The USDA average Midwest benchmark prices for generic Extra Large and Large were down 3.0 and 3.1 percent respectively over the past week at 128.5 and 126.5 cents per dozen. Mediums were unchanged at 80.5 cents per dozen. Second quarter prices reflected static demand, offset by decreases in the U.S. flock in production. The trajectory of prices through the second week of September suggests a decline moving through the month. Margins going forward will be shaved despite stability in feed price but with higher labor and fuel costs especially as unit revenue erodes.


  • There is some prospect of a return of the food service sector with both frozen and dried-egg prices marginally higher. The economy is reopening despite a rise in COVID incidence rates and hospitalizations in many regions. There is some optimism over the rate of deployment and acceptance of the three vaccines especially in rural areas and inner city zones. Reopening of the economy and schools in areas with low population immunity has resulted in a surge in the incidence rate of COVID. This is especially the case following the introduction and dissemination of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 virus that is more infectious and possibly with higher pathogenicity than the original strain especially among the non-immunized proportion of the population that represent an overwhelming majority of those hospitalized.


  • The Midwest price for breaking stock was down 3.6 percent to an average of 68.0 cents per dozen. Checks in the Midwest were down 8.7 percent to an average of 57.5 cents per dozen. It is anticipated that these prices will fluctuate in response to market trends and gradual recovery of the breaking sector.




According to the USDA Egg Market News Reports released on September 13th, the Midwest wholesale prices for Extra-large were lower by 3.1 percent to an average of 128.5 cents per dozen; Large were down 3.1 percent to 126.5 cents per dozen; Mediums were unchanged at 80.5 cents per dozen as delivered to DCs. Prices should be compared with the USDA benchmark average 6-Region blended nest-run, (excluding provisions for packing, packaging materials and transport) cost of 69.7 cents per dozen in August 2021. The progression of prices during 2021 to date is depicted in the USDA chart reflecting three years of data, updated weekly.


The September 13th 2021 edition of the USDA Egg Market News Report (Vol. 68: No. 37) documented a USDA Combined Region value rounded to the nearest cent, of $1.41 per dozen delivered to warehouses for the week ending September 6th 2021. This average price lags current Midwest weekly values by one week. The USDA Combined range for Large in the Midwest was $1.31 per dozen. At the high end of the range, price in the South Central Region attained $1.49 per dozen. The USDA Combined Price last week was 42 cents per dozen above the 3-year average. This past week Midwest Large was approximately 54 cents above the corresponding week in 2020.

Flock Size

According to the USDA the number of producing hens reflecting September 15 th (rounded to 0.1 million) was 0.3 million higher to 315.9 million contributing to a net decline of 2.4 million hens over twenty weeks. If USDA data is accurate, the producing flock contains molted hens now coming back into production with approximately 4.5 million new pullets reaching maturity during the week, offset by reduced flock depletion. The hen population producing eggs is in slight excess relative to current consumer demand. Exports are moderate to high but industrial and food service off-take although increasing, has not reverted to pre-COVID levels. Any number of producing hens above a subjectively determined range of 310 to 315 million in production in mid-September, portends stable to lower prices with increased inventory, as is currently evident, unless matched by proportional increases in demand. Prices are generally following seasonal trends although at higher absolute values compared to 2020. Declines are now expected given the rise in inventory from the contribution of hens returning to production from molt.


The total U.S. egg-flock was up 0.3 million hens to 322.3 million hens including second-cycle birds and those in molt. The difference of 6.4 million hens (6.4 million last week) between hens in production and total hens is equivalent to 2.0 percent of the national flock, suggesting that despite disposal of older flocks, molted hens are resuming production. In addition, young pullets will commence laying consistent with chick placements in late February and early March 2021.


The obvious reduction in hen numbers in Iowa and to a lesser extent among the next three largest egg-producing states that occurred following the onset of COVID-19 in February 2020 has been partly reversed with flocks trending to pre-COVID numbers. Chick placement data suggests that 22.4 million pullets per month commenced production during the second quarter of 2021 and 27.0 million per month are projected for the third quarter. This has implications for prices, given current supply and stock levels in relation to anticipated depressed demand during the fourth quarter.



Cold storage stocks of frozen products in selected regions on September 13th 2021 amounted to 2.385 million pounds (1,084 metric tons) of frozen egg products, 1.8 percent more than the level of 2.429 million lbs. on September 1st 2021.


The most recent monthly USDA Cold Storage Report released on August 23rd 2021 documented a total stock of 26.8 million pounds (12,210 metric tons) of frozen egg products on July 31st 2021. This value was down 31.2 percent from July 31st 2020. (25.3 million on June 30th 2021). A total of 91.9 percent of combined inventory comprised the categories of “Whole and Mixed” (46.5 percent) and “Unclassified” (45.4 percent). The lack of specificity in classification suggests a more diligent approach is required to enumerate and report inventory by the USDA.


Shell Inventory

The national stock of generic shell eggs effective September 13 th 2021 was substantially higher by 5.0 percent after an increase of 2.7 percent for the preceding week but with the total now at 1.98 million cases. The U.S. population of laying hens at this time is influenced by the number of flocks retained after molting coupled with chick placements made in late February and early March 2020. Going forward, older hens will assume a smaller proportion of the national flock as molted flocks are depleted.


Four of the six USDA Regions reported higher stock levels. These are listed in descending stock level:-

  • The Midwest Region was up 4.8 percent compared to the previous week to 535,500 cases.
  • The South Central Region, was up a noteworthy 12.0 percent to 335,700 cases
  • The Southeast Region was up 6.6 percent to 289,200 cases
  • The Northeast Region was down 4.0 percent to 214,100 cases.
  • The Southwest Region was down 0.4 percent to 156,100 cases
  • The Northwest Region was up a noteworthy 11.6 percent to 106,400 cases


The total USDA six-area stock of commodity eggs comprised 1,984,300 cases, of which 82.5 percent were shell eggs (80.9 percent last week). The inventory of breaking stock was down 5.2 percent to 347,400 cases. The value of breaking stock and hence availability from both mature and young flocks is influenced by the demand for generic shell eggs and contract obligations with breakers. High prices for shell eggs diverts uncommitted product to the shell market from breaking with a concurrent increase in proportion of in-line breaking with changes in price and inventory of contractors’ eggs.


As of Monday September 13th the inventory of other than generic eggs (with previous week in parentheses) comprised:-

  • Specialty category, down 0.2 percent to 39,500 cases. (was up 7.6% to 39,600 cases)
  • Certified Organic, up 0.8 percent to 116,400 cases. (was up 5.9% to 115,500 cases)
  • Cage-Free, down 1.9 percent to 159,100 cases. (was up 8.7% to 162,200 cases)


Demand for cage-free product will not increase materially while generic eggs are on the shelf at $1.00 to $1.45 per dozen over the long term. Existing and proposed individual state legislation mandating sale of only cage-free eggs will support most of the anticipated transition from cages but total re-housing will not be completed, if ever, by the beginning of 2025, less than 40 months away. An appeal regarding the constitutionality of California Proposition #12 was not granted certiorari by SCOTUS, letting stand the lower court decision. With the current proportion of non-caged flocks, cage-free eggs are becoming a commodity in some markets subjected to the same price pressures as generic eggs from caged hens.


Demand for cage-free eggs is influenced by the relative shelf prices of the category in comparison with generic white-shelled eggs from caged flocks. At the other end of the price range, consumers will purchase less-expensive brown cage-free product over organic eggs when there is a differential in price greater than about $1.20 per dozen. Similarly, consumers purchase white-shelled generic eggs in preference to brown-shelled cage-free with a differential of over $1.20 per dozen. The need for structured statistically relevant market research on the willingness to pay for attributes such as housing, shell color, GM status and nutritional enrichment is self-evident.



The following advertised retail prices for the week ending September 16 th, (compared with the previous week in parentheses) were posted by the AMS on September 13th for dozen packs:


USDA Certified Organic, Brown, Large: $3.96 ($4.10)

Cage-Free Brown, Large: $2.56 ($2.95)

Omega-3 Enriched Specialty, White, Large: $2.09 ($2.39)

Generic White, Large Grade AA $0.80 ($1.50)

Generic White, Large Grade A (Feature price) $0.85 ($1.29)


The calculated retail price this week as determined by the USDA-AMS for generic white Large Grade AA was down $0.70 reflecting a lower margin taken by chains after the holiday weekend. Shelf price will not materially decrease demand for this category given the higher advertised prices for cage-free brown eggs. Clearly demand is not balanced relative to supply based on the successively higher inventory of shell eggs over the past three weeks. The restraint to demand for shell eggs is the decline in home cooking as COVID restrictions are lifted.


During the present week the USDA benchmark-advertised retail price of brown Cage-Free was down 13.2 percent or 39 cents per dozen to $2.56 per dozen. (last week USDA advertised price was $2.95 per dozen). Certified organic was down 3.4 percent or 14 cents per dozen to $3.96 per dozen. The differential in advertised price between cage-free brown and certified organic was $1.40 per dozen ($1.15 per dozen last week) suggesting relatively higher demand for cage-free brown over certified organic during the current week. The differential between cage-free brown and generic white Grade AA was $1.76 per dozen this week, (last week $1.45 per dozen) favoring the generic white category. Preference for cage-free brown is evident with a price differential lower than $1.20 per dozen. Large week-to-week percentage fluctuations can be expected in the stock of specialty and organic eggs based on the small base of these categories.


The difference between the advertised per dozen prices for cage-free brown ($2.58) and cage-free white ($2.09) was $0.49 per dozen.


Features for the major categories this week by proportion included Organic (26.5 percent down from 34.8 percent last week); Cage-free (13.2 percent, down from 25.5 percent) and Omega-3 enriched (25.4 percent, up from 21.2 percent).


USDA Cage-Free Data

According to the latest monthly USDA Cage-free Hen Report released on September 13th 2021, the number of certified organic hens during August 2021 was revised from July to 17.8 million.


The USDA reported a 7.2 percent increase in the cage-free (non-organic) flock to 73.5 million in August compared to July and 10.3 percent higher than an average of 66.6 in Q1 2021.


The stated population of hens producing cage-free and certified organic eggs in July 2021 comprised:-

Total U.S. flock held for USDA Certified Organic production = 17.8 million (17.4 million in Q1 2021).

Total U.S. flock held for cage-free production = 73.5 million (66.6 million in Q1 2021).

Total U.S. non-caged flock = 91.3 million (84.0 million in Q1 2021).


This total value represents 28.5 percent of a nominal 320 million total U.S. flock but 40.7 percent of a presumed pre-COVID flock of 224 million producing for the shell-egg market. Hens certified under the USDA Organic program did not increase in proportion to cage-free flocks since Q1 2021.


Processed Eggs

For the processing week ending September 11th 2021 the quantity of eggs processed under FSIS inspection as reported on September 15 th 2021 was down 1.9 percent compared to the previous processing week to a level of 1,489,244 cases (1,518,296 cases last week). The proportion of eggs broken by in-line complexes was 56.8 percent (was 54.6 percent last week) denoting greater allocation of uncommitted eggs to the shell market. With higher prices for shell eggs there is a trend to divert non-contracted eggs from breaking to shell sales and vice versa resulting in either a higher or lower proportion of in-line breaking. This past week 70.4 percent of egg production was directed to the shell market, (69.8 percent for the previous week) consistent with more competitive prices for shell eggs. Breaking stock inventory was down 5.2 percent this past week (up 7.6 percent last week due to the holiday). There is evidence of slight recovery in the food service sector, especially for QSRs, offset by decreased demand from baking and eat-at-home. During the corresponding processing week in 2020 (pre-COVID) in-line breakers processed 55.1 percent of eggs broken.


For the last available monthly report dated September 4th 2021, yield from 6,192,503 cases (6,680,840 cases last month) denoted an increase in demand for liquid over the period August 1st 2021 through August 28th 2021. Edible yield was 38.0 percent, distributed in the following proportions expressed as percentages:- liquid whole, 58.1; white, 25.8; yolk 12.5; dried, 3.6.


All eggs broken during YTD 2021 attained 52.9 million cases, 0.6 percent more than the corresponding period during 2020 attributed to increasing demand for egg liquids from food service and QSRs and casual dining restaurants.


Consumption of liquids is still constrained by COVID-19 home-cooking resulting in diversion of breaking stock into the shell market partly balanced by a reduction in hens dedicated to breaking.




Breaking Stock

The average price for breaking stock was down 3.6 percent to an average of 68.0 cents per dozen with a range of 67 to 69 cents per dozen delivered to Central States plants on September 13th. Checks were 8.7 percent lower at an average of 57.5 cents per dozen over a range of 55 to 60 cents per dozen. Average revenue for both breaking stock and checks should be compared to the benchmark production cost for nest-run Large, estimated by the USDA at 69.7 cents per dozen for August 2021.


Shell Eggs

The USDA Egg Market News Report released on September 13 th confirmed that Midwest prices for Extra Large and Large were down 3.0 and 3.1 percent respectively from the previous week. Mediums were unchanged compared to the previous week. There is an imbalance between production and demand accentuated by the price discovery system in use. The following table lists the “most frequent” ranges of values as delivered to warehouses*:-



Current Week

Previous Week

Extra Large

127-130 cents per dozen

131-134 Down 3.0%


125-128 cents per dozen

129-132 Down 3.1%


79-82 cents per dozen

79-82 Unchanged

Certified Organic EL

275-310 cents per dozen

Unchanged long term

Breaking stock

67-69 cents per dozen

69-72 Down 3.6%


55-60 cents per dozen

60-65 Down 8.7 %

*Store Delivery approximately 5 cents per dozen more than warehouse price


The September 13th 2021 Midwest Regional (IA, WI, MN.) average FOB producer prices, for nest-run, grade-quality white shelled eggs, with prices in rounded cents per dozen were unchanged from last week, with the previous week in parentheses:-

EL. $1.12 ($1.16), (estimated by proportion): L. $1.07 ($1.13): M. $0.61 ($0.61)


The September 13th 2021 California prices per dozen for cage-free, California-compliant product in cartons delivered to a DC, with the previous week in parentheses:-

EL. $2.02 ($2.06); L. $1.94 ($2.00); M. $1.41 ($1.41)


(See the text, tables and figures and the review of production data and prices comprising the USDA costs for August 2021 in this edition and the Third Quarter FY 2021 results for Cal-Maine Foods under the Statistics TAB.)


Shell-Egg Demand Indicator

The USDA-AMS Shell Egg Demand Indicator for September 15th 2021 was down 3.6 points from the last weekly report to -1.2 with a 5.0 percent increase in inventory from the past week as determined by the USDA-ERS as follows:-

Productive flock

315,879,261 million hens

Average hen week production

81.9% (was 81.8%)

Average egg production

258,620,210 per day

Proportion to shell egg market

70.4% (was 69.8%)

Total for in-shell consumption

505,640 cases per day

USDA Inventory

1,636,900 cases

26-week rolling average inventory

5.08 days

Actual inventory on hand

5.14 days

Shell Egg Demand Indicator

-1.2 points (was 2.4 on September 8th 2021)


Dried Egg Products


Prices for dried egg products (most frequent price with a range in $ per pound) effective September 10th 2021 compared to the previous week were:-

Whole Egg






Spray-Dried White





No new quotation


Prices for frozen egg products (most frequent price with a range in cents per pound) effective September 10th 2021 compared to the previous week were:-

Whole Egg

$0.92 - $0.95



$0.65 - $0.67


Average for Yolks

$1.31 - $1.37

$1.30 - $1.35


The USDA has not released a report on dried egg inventory since March 13 th 2020 due to an inability to obtain data from producers, and will not issue reports for the immediate future.



There are reports with increasing frequency in the E.U. of continued shedding of H5N8 and other H5 strains by migratory waterfowl with mortality this past week in central Holland in addition to raptors and some wild species. Outbreaks of HPAI on commercial farms are attributed to contact between wild birds and both domestic chicken, turkey and duck flocks, many of which are on pasture. Most veterinary authorities in Western Europe are advising or mandating flock confinement with the prospect of relaxation only if justified by incidence rates. Avian influenza strains H5 and H7 persist in both Western and Eastern Europe and both West and Southern Africa and isolations continue from free-living birds, backyard flocks and commercial farms.


France is considering changing from an “annual eradication” program to vaccination against H5 and H7 strains of avian influenza. Free-range chickens and especially waterfowl maintained by the foie gras industry, comprising numerous small-scale family operations are devastated at almost yearly intervals requiring indemnity payments for control including preemptive depletion.